Each components was chosen for a certain reason. Below are a few of many published studies that these foods offer the body.

Marine Collagen 

Asserin, J., Lati, E., Shioya, T., & Prawitt, J. (2015). The effect of oral collagen peptide supplementation on skin moisture and the dermal collagen network: Eevidence from an ex vivo model and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 14(4), 291–301. 
Full article

Avila Rodríguez, M. I., Rodríguez Barroso, L. G., & Sánchez, M. L. (2018, February 1). Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 17, pp. 20–26. Full article

Costa, A., Pegas Pereira, E. S., Assumpção, E. C., Dos Santos, F. B. C., Ota, F. S., De Pereira, M. O., … Abildgaard, E. N. (2015). Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, 8, 319–328. Full article

De Luca, C., Mikhal’Chik, E. V., Suprun, M. V., Papacharalambous, M., Truhanov, A. I., & Korkina, L. G. (2016). Skin antiageing and systemic Redox effects of supplementation with marine collagen peptides and plant-derived antioxidants: A single-blind case-control clinical study. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016Full article

Kim, D. U., Chung, H. C., Choi, J., Sakai, Y., & Lee, B. Y. (2018). Oral intake of low-molecular-weight collagen peptide improves hydration, elasticity, and wrinkling in human skin: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients, 10(7). Full article

Marotta, F., Kumari, A., Yadav, H., Polimeni, A., Soresi, V., Lorenzetti, A., … Jain, S. (2012). Biomarine extracts significantly protect from ultraviolet A-induced skin photoaging: An ex vivo study. Rejuvenation Research, 15(2), 157–160. Full article

Proksch, E., Schunck, M., Zague, V., Segger, D., Degwert, J., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 27(3), 113–119. Full article

Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V., & Oesser, S. (2013). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 27(1), 47–55. Full article

Salvatore, L., Gallo, N., Natali, M. L., Campa, L., Lunetti, P., Madaghiele, M., … Sannino, A. (2020, August 1). Marine collagen and its derivatives: Versatile and sustainable bio-resources for healthcare. Materials Science and Engineering C, Vol. 113, p. 110963. Full article

Schagen, S. K., Zampeli, V. A., Makrantonaki, E., & Zouboulis, C. C. (2012, July). Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging. Dermato-Endocrinology, Vol. 4. Full article

Vollmer, D. L., West, V. A., & Lephart, E. D. (2018, October 7). Enhancing skin health: By oral administration of natural compounds and minerals with implications to the dermal microbiome. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 19. Full article

Voss, W., & Schlippe, G. (2017). Dermatological expertise on an eight-week lasting clinical-dermatological application test with hydration determination using a corneometer. Normay.

Organic Beetroot 

Bahadoran, Z., Mirmiran, P., Kabir, A., Azizi, F., & Ghasemi, A. (2017, November 1). The nitrate-independent blood pressure-lowering effect of beetroot juice: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Advances in Nutrition, Vol. 8, pp. 830–838. Full article

Bryan, N. S. (2009). Cardioprotective actions of nitrite therapy and dietary considerations. Frontiers in Bioscience, 14(12), 4793–4808. Full article

Calvo, J. L., Alorda-Capo, F., Pareja-Galeano, H., & Jiménez, S. L. (2020, June 1). Influence of nitrate supplementation on endurance cyclic sports performance: A systematic review. Nutrients, Vol. 12, pp. 1–20. Full article

Cosby, K., Partovi, K. S., Crawford, J. H., Patel, R. P., Reiter, C. D., Martyr, S., … Gladwin, M. T. (2003). Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by deoxyhemoglobin vasodilates the human circulation. Nature Medicine, 9(12), 1498–1505. Full article

Domínguez, R., Cuenca, E., Maté-Muñoz, J. L., García-Fernández, P., Serra-Paya, N., Estevan, M. C. L., … Garnacho-Castaño, M. V. (2017, January 6). Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A systematic review. Nutrients, Vol. 9. Full article

Gladwin, M. T., Raat, N. J. H., Shiva, S., Dezfulian, C., Hogg, N., Kim-Shapiro, D. B., & Patel, R. P. (2006). Nitrite as a vascular endocrine nitric oxide reservoir that contributes to hypoxic signaling, cytoprotection, and vasodilation. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol. 291. Full article

Hlinský, T., Kumstát, M., & Vajda, P. (2020, September 1). Effects of dietary nitrates on time trial performance in athletes with different training status: Systematic review. Nutrients, Vol. 12, pp. 1–18. Full article

Serra-Payá, N., Garnacho-Castaño, M. V., Sánchez-Nuño, S., Albesa-Albiol, L., Girabent-Farrés, M., Arcone, L. M., … Bataller, M. G. (2021). The relationship between resistance exercise performance and ventilatory efficiency after beetroot juice intake in well-trained athletes. Nutrients, 13(4). Full article

Organic Blackcurrant

Braakhuis, A. J., Somerville, V. X., & Hurst, R. D. (2020, May 27). The effect of New Zealand blackcurrant on sport performance and related biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 17. Full article

David Cook, M., Elisabeth, M., & Willems, T. (n.d.). International Journal of Exercise Metabolism and Sports Nutrition Title of Article: Dietary Anthocyanins: A Review of the Exercise Performance 1 Effects and Related Physiological Responses 2 Running Title: Exercise Performance Responses to Anthocyanins 3.

Edirisinghe, I., Banaszewski, K., Cappozzo, J., McCarthy, D., & Burton-Freeman, B. M. (2013, January 30). Erratum: Correction to effect of black currant anthocyanins on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vitro in human endothelial cells (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2011) 59:16 (8616-8624) DOI: 10.1021/jf201116y). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 61, p. 1006. Full article

Hurst, R. D., Lyall, K. A., Roberts, J. M., Perthaner, A., Wells, R. W., Cooney, J. M., … Hurst, S. M. (2019). Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from new zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, 73. Full article

Nolan, A., Brett, R., Strauss, J. A., Stewart, C. E., & Shepherd, S. O. (2021). Short-term, but not acute, intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves insulin sensitivity and free-living postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with overweight or obesity. European Journal of Nutrition, 60(3), 1253–1262. Full article

Potter, J. A., Hodgson, C. I., Broadhurst, M., Howell, L., Gilbert, J., Willems, M. E. T., & Perkins, I. C. (2020). Effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on sport climbing performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 120(1), 67–75. Full article

Şahin, PhD, M. A., Bilgiç, PhD, P., Montanari, MSc, S., & Willems, PhD, M. E. T. (2020a). Daily and Not Every-Other-Day Intake of Anthocyanin-Rich New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Alters Substrate Oxidation during Moderate-Intensity Walking in Adult Males. Journal of Dietary SupplementsFull article

Şahin, PhD, M. A., Bilgiç, PhD, P., Montanari, MSc, S., & Willems, PhD, M. E. T. (2020b). Intake Duration of Anthocyanin-Rich New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Affects Metabolic Responses during Moderate Intensity Walking Exercise in Adult Males. Journal of Dietary SupplementsFull article

Sahin, A., Bilgiç, P., Montanari, S., & Willems, M. (n.d.). Effects of duration of New Zealand blackcurrant extract intake on whole-body fat oxidation during moderate intensity exercise in males We examined the effects of intake duration (i.e. 7 and 14 days) of NZBC extract on metabolic and physiological responses.

Strauss, J. A., Willems, M. E. T., & Shepherd, S. O. (2018). New Zealand blackcurrant extract enhances fat oxidation during prolonged cycling in endurance-trained females. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 118(6), 1265–1272. Full article

Theodorus Willems, M. E., Parktin, N., Widjaja, W., & Ajjimaporn, A. (n.d.). Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Physiological Responses at Rest and during Brisk Walking in Southeast Asian Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover StudyFull article

Willems, M. E. T., Parktin, N., Widjaja, W., & Ajjimaporn, A. (2018). Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on physiological responses at rest and during brisk walking in southeast asian men: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Nutrients, 10(11), 304. Full article


Organic Raspberries

Aiyer, H. S., Vadhanam, M. V., Stoyanova, R., Caprio, G. D., Clapper, M. L., & Gupta, R. C. (2008). Dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent oxidative DNA damage and modulate expression of DNA repair genes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9(3), 327–341. Full article

Burton-Freeman, B. M., Sandhu, A. K., & Edirisinghe, I. (2016). Red raspberries and their bioactive polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and neuronal health links. Advances in Nutrition, Vol. 7, pp. 44–65. Full article

Franck, M., de Toro-Martín, J., Garneau, V., Guay, V., Kearney, M., Pilon, G., … Vohl, M. C. (2020). Effects of daily raspberry consumption on immune-metabolic health in subjects at risk of metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 12(12), 1–20. Full article

God, J., Tate, P. L., & Larcom, L. L. (2010). Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells. Nutrition Research, 30(11), 777–782. Full article

Noratto, G., Chew, B. P., & Ivanov, I. (2016). Red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice. Food and Function, 7(12), 4944–4955. Full article

Olsson, M. E., Gustavsson, K. E., Andersson, S., Nilsson, Å., & Duan, R. D. (2004). Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(24), 7264–7271. Full article

Skrovankova, S., Sumczynski, D., Mlcek, J., Jurikova, T., & Sochor, J. (2015, October 16). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in different types of berries. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 16, pp. 24673–24706. Full article